UC Box: A121
Office: Strain 210
Postdoctoral research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
PhD in Animal Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Master of Arts in Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
Bachelor of Arts in Biology, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA.
Areas of Research & Speciliazation
Scholnick, associate professor of biology, was recently featured on
the Discovery Channel (Daily Planet) with research students Nathan
Gilpin (exercise science senior) and Kristen Dick (biology sophomore).
Check out the link to see them examining Oregon lizards sick with
malaria, collecting them and bringing to campus to better understand the
disease and its impacts on animals in North America.
Discovery Channel. Daily Planet.
Today Show Appearance
How a shrimp on a treadmill became a Web sensation
University’s David Scholnick and College of Charleston’s Lou Burnett
spoke to Today Show hosts Matt Lauer, Meredith Vieira and Al Roker about
their research entitled "Shrimp on Treadmill". The research started as a
simple investigation on the impact of bacteria on shrimp and soon
turned into an Internet sensation.
Worldwide animals are at an increased risk of apportunistic pathogens. Elevations in temperature and increased areas of low oxygen,
suggest that pathogen exposure of lower vertebrates and marine
invertebrates are escalating.
The central hypothesis underlying my research is that
infectious disease can compromise the respiratory systems of lower
vertebrates and invertebrates and thereby limit the ability of animals
to sustain and recover from normal activities.
Working with colleagues at College of Charleston's Grice Marine Laboratory and Hollings Marine Laboratory in Charleston, South Carolina, we have demonstrated that in resting
animals bacterial infection can compromise normal metabolic function.
Following infection, aerobic respiration rates are down regulated and
lactate levels increase in resting animals.
At Pacific University my students and I will examine the
relationship between host and pathogen in lower vertebrates and
invertebrates during activity and recovery. Studies will be conducted
using local lizards that are infected with Plasmodium-the hemoparasite
that causes malaria in a wide range of vertebrates-to determine if
infected lizards have limited respiratory capacity.
Many lizard populations are regularly infected with
Plasmodium which is transmitted via blood sucking invertebrates.
Previous research has shown that many of the physiological disruption
experienced by lizards are similar to those seen in humans. Infected
lizards have reduced oxygen uptake, suffer from anemia, and have reduced
My students and I will examine the
thermoregulatory ability of infected and uninfected lizards at rest and
following activity. Additional studies will determine changes in
metabolism, recovery, and lactate in lizards exposed to the malarial
In a separate set of experiments, penaeid
shrimp that typically inhabit estuaries and regularly encounter high
temperatures and low oxygen levels will be used to examine whether
bacterial infection can alter anaerobic pathways. In these studies,
shrimp infected with pathogenic bacteria will be exercised on small
treadmills and changes in lactate, oxygen consumption, and activity
monitored. These experiments will indicate whether sublethal infection
can suppress normal respiratory activity and limit recovery.
The goal of these studies is to better understanding how
pathogens can impact respiration and thereby disrupt metabolic pathways
- Scholnick, D.A., N. Gilpin*, and R. Manivanh*. 2012. Disruptions to recovery metabolism in the fence lizards Sceloporus occidentalis infected with the malarial parasite Plasmodium mexicanum. Journal of Herpetology 46:643-647.
- Scholnick, D. A. and V. Haynes*. 2012. Influence of hypoxia on bacteremia in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister. Biological Bulletin 222:56-62.
- Scholnick, D. A., T. Bates*, R. Manivanh*, S. McAlexander* and O. Savenkova*. 2010. Impact of malarial infection on metabolism and thermoregulation in the fence lizard fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Journal of Herpetology 44 (4): 634-640.
D. A., T. Bates*, R. Manivanh*, S. McAlexander* and O. Savenkova*.
2010. Impact of malarial infection on metabolism and thermoregulation
in the fence lizard fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Journal of Herpetology (In Press).
Scholnick, D. A., A.
E. Barabas* S. S. Cowan*. 2006. Influence of chloride on glucose export
in marine crabs: Activation of glucose-6-phosphatase by chloride ion. J.
Crustacean Biol. 26:510-514.
Scholnick, D. A., K. G. Burnett and L. E. Burnett. 2006. Impact of exposure to bacteria on metabolism in the Penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Biological Bulletin 211:44-49.
Petersen*, A. M., T.
T. Gleeson, and D. A. Scholnick. 2003. The effect of oxygen and
adenosine on the thermoregulation of lizards. Physiol. Biochem. Zool.
Burnett, L., N.
Terwilliger, A. Carroll, D. Jorgensen, D. Scholnick. 2002. Respiratory
and acid-base physiology of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, during air exposure: Presence and function of a facultative lung. Biol. Bull. 203:42-50.
Wallert, M., J.
Foster, D. Scholnick, S. Olmschnek, B. Kuehn, and J. Provost. 2001.
Kinetic analysis of glucose-6-phosphatase: An investigative approach to
carbohydrate metabolism and kinetics. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Ed.
J. A., D. A. Scholnick, and T. T. Gleeson. 2001. Roles of lactate and
catecholamines in the energetics of brief locomotion in an ectothermic
vertebrate. J. Comp. Physiol. B. 171:237-245.
Scholnick, D.A. and T. T. Gleeson. 2000. Activity before exercise influences recovery metabolism in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis. J. Exp. Biol. 203:1809-1815.
Wagner, E. L., D. A.
Scholnick and T. T. Gleeson. 1999. The roles of acidosis and lactate in
the behavioral hypothermia of exhausted lizards. J. Exp. Biol.
Scholnick, D. A. and
T. T. Gleeson. 1997. The influence of corticosterone and glucacon on
metabolic recovery from exhaustive exercise in the desert iguana Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 106:147-154.
Horn, D. B., D. A.
Podolin, J. E. Friedman, D. A. Scholnick and R. S. Mazzeo, 1997.
Alterations in key gluconeogenic regulators with age and endurance
training. Metabolism, 46:414-419.
Scholnick, D. A. and G. K. Snyder, 1996. Physiological response of the tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus to hypoxia. Crustaceana, 69:937-948.
Scholnick, D. A. and T. T. Gleeson, 1996. Regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. American Journal of Physiology, 271:R1447-R1451.
Scholnick, D. A.,
1995. Effect of metabolic sensitivity to environmental variation on
growth and reproductive potential in tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus. Biological Bulletin 189:22-28.
Snyder, G. K., B.
Sheafor, D. A. Scholnick and C. Farrelly, 1995. Gas exchange in the
insect tracheal system. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 172:199-207.
Scholnick, D. A., 1994. Seasonal variation and diurnal fluctuation in ephemeral desert pools. Hydrobiologia, 294:111-116.
Scholnick, D. A., G. K. Snyder and A. R. Spell, 1994. Acid-base status of a pulmonate land snail (Helix aspersa) and a prosobranch amphibious snail (Pomacea bridgesi) during dormancy. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 268:293-298.
Scholnick, D. A. and C. P. Mangum, 1991. Sensitivity of hemoglobins to intracellular
effectors: Primitive and derived features. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 259:32-42.
* Indicates undergraduate researcher
- Scholnick, D.A., R.V. Manivanh*, and W.N. Nelson*. 2010.
Effects of malaria infection on post-exercise thermoregulation and
metabolism in the western fence lizard, SICB Annual Meeting, Seattle.
SICB Annual Meeting, Seattle, P2.141.
- Scholnick, D. A., V.N. Haynes*, and G. Nyerges. 2010. Influence of hypoxia on Psychrobacter levels in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister. Integrative and Comparative Biology, SICB Annual Meeting, Seattle, P3.60.
- Scholnick, D. A., R. Manivanh* and O. Savenkova*. 2009. The
physiological consequence of malaria infection in the Western fence
lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Integrative and Comparative Biology, SICB Annual Meeting, Boston, P1.108.
- Scholnick, D. A., V. Haynes*, and M. Schweitzer*, 2009. Hypoxia impairs antibacterial defense in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister. Integrative and Comparative Biology, SICB Annual Meeting, Boston, P3.101.
- Scholnick, D. A. and L. E. Burnett, 2005. Respiratory responses to bacterial exposure in the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during locomotory activity and recovery. Integrative and Comparative Biology PI.73.
- Burnett, L., D. Scholnick and K. Burnett. 2005. Impact of bacterial infection on respiratory function in the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. FASEB Journal 19 (4, Suppl. S, Part 1), A648.
- Scholnick, D. A., K. G. Burnett, and L. E. Burnett. 2004.
Impact of bacterial infection on respiratory function in the penaeid
shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Integrative and Comparative Biology P1.73:331.
- Scholnick, D. A. and A. Barabas*. 2003. The effects of
chloride on marine decapod crustaceans. Integrative and Comparative
- Petersen*, A., D. A. Scholnick and T. T. Gleeson, 2002. The
effect of oxygen and adenosine on lizard thermoregulation. American
- Wallert, M. A., J. D. Foster, D. A. Scholnick, S. M.
Olmschenk, R. J. Kuehn, J. J. Provost, 2001. Kinetic Analysis of
Glucose 6-Phosphatase: An investigative Approach to Carbohydrate
metabolism and kinetics. FASCB proceedings.
- Scholnick, D. A., L. M. Waters and A. L. Wolf*, 1999. The physiological consequences of claw autotomy in the stone crab Menippe mercenaria. American Zoologist 72A.
- Scholnick, D. A. and T. T. Gleeson, 1998. Effects of prior exercise on metabolic recovery in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis. American Zoologist 37:140A.
- Gleeson, T. T., R. B. Weinstein and D. A. Scholnick, 1996.
Influence of adrenal and pancreatic hormones on metabolic recovery from
exhaustive exercise in an ectothermic vertebrate. The Physiologist,
- Scholnick, D. A. and T. T. Gleeson, 1996. Regulation of
post-exercise skeletal muscle metabolism by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
and glucagon. The Physiologist, 39:A-26.
- Scholnick, D. A. and T. T. Gleeson, 1995. Regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. American Zoologist, 35:99A.
- Scholnick, D. A., 1994. Physiological and behavioral response of the tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus to hypoxia. American Zoologist, 34:32A.
- Scholnick, D. A., 1993. Effect of fluctuations of O2,
temperature and pH on metabolism and growth rates of tadpole shrimp.
American Zoologist, 33:49A.
* Indicates undergraduate researcher
At Pacific University, all faculty teach a variety of different courses. Typically, we do not use graduate teaching assistants, which means that your classes will be taught by professors abd that you will have plenty of opportunites to get to know the faculty in your discipline.
Below I have listed some of the courses that I teach. We are always developing and trying out new classes, so the list may change now andthen. You can use the links to the left to read descriptions of the courses listed below.
BIOL 202 General Biology I
BIOL 470 Animal Physiology
BIOL 145 Marine Biology for Non-Science Majors
BIOL 345 Marine Biology