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The Historical Memory Law in Spain: the Importance of Memory and History for Identity

Katherine Gutierrez’s senior project proved to be not only a learning experience, but also a powerful personal exploration of her heritage.

“It made my love of Spain grow even more and it made me want to learn about my last name…and my heritage,” she notes. Gutierrez traveled to Spain as an exchange student and examined the testimonies of those who experienced exile from the Spanish Civil War.

Her project, “The Historical Memory Law in Spain: The Importance of Memory and History for Identity,” examined a law that Spain passed in 2007. Among the provisions, the law gives an opportunity for Spanish descendents, exiled due to war and the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, to officially regain their Spanish nationality.

Gutierrez, who has been studying Spanish since grade school, saw a store in Spain named after her family “and felt a really big sense of identity when I was there. I just belonged.”

Windmill of Creation: Altazor and Cubism

Upon the arrival of Chilean poet Vicente Huidobro to Paris in 1916, the poetry and poetics of this South American intellectual undergoes an astonishing transformation amidst the angst and fervor of the iconoclastic European vanguard. Though the roots of huidobrian creacionismo began to develop prior to his relocation, the influence of the avant-garde art movements in Europe such as Surrealism, Futurism, Dadaism and Cubism takes a key role in the emergence of his own poetic genre. The visual arts movements of this era each had a corresponding literary equivalent, and characteristics of each can be observed in the poetry of Vicente Huidobro. However, the school that would prove to be most influential in the emergence of Huidobro's creacionismo in its definitive form is cubism, demonstrated most notably in Altazor, widely considered to be the culmination of his work as a poet. An adamant participant in the so-called "cult of originality", both collaborating with and criticizing his contemporaries, Huidobro tirelessly aims to promote the creation of new realities under his vision of the poet as a "little god". Offering us hope through the creative power of words, Vicente Huidobro seeks to re-enchant a world devastated by the horrific reality of World War I.

Heritage, Host, & Home: Understanding the Cultural Dynamics of Carrying a Pregnancy to Term among Latina Youth in the United States

Highest among the Latino community, the birth rate among teenagers in the United States is an issue straining the nation both economically and socially. When faced with the challenge of designing programming initiatives to reduce Latina teen births, U.S. educators often create a blanket program to address the community. However, the Latino community is complex and in order to create a successful sexual education program that reduces pregnancies carried to term among Latina teenagers, educators need to recognize the dynamics of particular ethnic subgroups within the Latino community. This study analyzes published literature focusing on the three largest Latino ethnic subgroups in the United States -- persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban heritage. It focuses on how the culture of a Latina's respective heritage along with that of the United States combine with individual family dynamics to better understand US Latina youths' decisions to be sexually active and carry a pregnancy to term. Yo argumento que: Un programa de educacion sexual dirigido a reducir los nacimientos entre los latinos adolescentes en los Estados Unidos tiene que considerar la cultura (la religion y la actitud de los papeles de genero) del pais de herencia tanta como la cultura de anfitrion de los EEUU y las circunstancias familiares de cada persona.

Cinema under Francisco Franco: Spanish Directors Defiance, Evasion, and Mockery of a Fascist Dictatorship

Under a repressive government, such as Franco's Spain (1939-1975), it is usually impossible to create new ideas, thoughts or criticize the government. However, Spanish cinema flourished under the regime of General Francisco Franco despite the interminable dictatorship and censorship. Provoked by the system under which they lived, Spanish directors in the 50s began to tell dramatic stories that approached the problems and expectations of the Spanish people by using allegories and symbols that reached their audiences and defied the censors. These films did not only honor freedom of expression, but also the value and intelligence of the film directors; they were forced to challenge their ways of production and expression in order to appease censorship without abandoning their original ideas they wanted to transmit. However, these films produced during the dictatorship failed in becoming recognized in the outside world. It is my objective to not only show that Spanish directors defied censorship, but that they were able to produce films of quality and substance although it proved difficult to distribute them to outside countries and examine the different reasons behind this.

A Contrastive Analysis of Abortion in the US and France Today

The advent of the contraceptive pill changed the way that societies react to unwanted pregnancies and abortion. France and the United States do not approach abortions in the same way. Though they have unique histories, abortion became legal in both countries in the early 1970s. Since then the efforts to promote prevention of unwanted pregnancies as well as the prevention of abortion have continued to evolve distinctively. Noticeably, the rates of abortion and demographic statistics between these countries are strikingly divergent. Hence, I propose a contrastive analysis of the preventative measures, abortion regulations, and the current supportive social policies to offer some insights for both countries in the future.

Silenced Voices: The Social Impacts of Petroleum Extraction in Ecuador

The primary source of national income for the Republic of Ecuador comes from the petroleum industry, generating over 50% of its revenue from selling crude oil. Petroleum production cannot be supplanted by another product given that no other resource within Ecuador can generate such a high income. In fact, the second largest source of national income is derived from international remittances, a source that does not even originate within the borders of the country. In the past, this dependence on the petroleum industry has lead to countless environmental and human rights abuses. In order to understand the current relationship the Ecuadorian people have with the local petroleum industry, I conducted 15 in-depth, qualitative interviews in Spanish with citizens, activists and employees of the oil industry. Using an inductive, grounded theoretical approach informed by dependency and world-systems theories, the questions in my interviews centered on the social impacts of oil extraction. This original research is intended to give voice to the people who continue to be impacted by past neoliberal policies and current structural poverty and dependence.