Standard Five: Faculty Qualifications, Performance, and Development
Faculty are qualified and model best professional practices in scholarship, service and teaching, including the assessment of their own effectiveness as related to candidate performance; they also collaborate with colleagues in the disciplines and schools. The unit systematically evaluates faculty performance and facilitates professional development. Evidence will be provided in this section that supports the statement that Pacific University meets this standard.
Element Three: Modeling Best Professional Practices in Scholarship
All faculty members within the COE are actively engaged in the scholarship of discovery, integration, application and teaching. These scholarly efforts have resulted in published articles and books, presentations at local, regional and national professional conferences, grants and contributions to furthering scholarly efforts and programs, and influencing the practice of P-12 professionals. The faculty and administration of Pacific University have adopted the ‘Boyer Model’ of scholarship, which permits faculty members to select their own scholarly path from among four possible areas. These are defined in Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate, by Ernest L. Boyer, 1990. Some excerpts from this work follow, along with examples from the faculty work in the College of Education.
1. “The Scholarship of Discovery – most closely associated with what academics refer to as research. No tenets in the academy are held in higher regard than the commitment to knowledge for its own sake, to freedom of inquiry and to following, in a disciplined fashion, an investigation wherever it may lead. Research is central to the work of higher learning. The scholarship of discovery contributes not only to the stock of human knowledge but also to the intellectual climate of a college or university. Both through traditional definitions of academic research and through creativity in the arts, the intellectual excitement enlivens faculty and invigorates the institution. Not just the outcomes, but the process and especially the passion, give meaning to the effort.” Original research in the College of Education, for example, might involve testing the effectiveness of teaching strategies, technology applications, or a specific curriculum.
2. “The Scholarship of Integration – making connections across disciplines, placing the specialties in a larger interdisciplinary context, or illuminating data in a revealing way - serious, disciplined work that seeks to interpret, draw together and bring new insight to bear on original research. Closely related to discovery, the scholarship of integration also means interpretation, fitting one’s own research – or the research of others – into larger intellectual patterns rather than confining one’s thinking to a narrow sub-specialty.” In the College of Education, curriculum development is an example of a scholarly activity that uses research on learning while placing concepts in an authentic and interdisciplinary context.
3. “The Scholarship of Application – engages scholars at the intersection of theory and practice. It is a dynamic process that is not solely based on the use of previously - conducted research, but develops new understanding which arises out of the process of application. This is scholarly service which both applies and contributes to human knowledge. To be considered scholarship, service activities must be tied directly to one’s special field of knowledge and relate to, and flow directly out of, this professional activity (e.g. consultation, technical assistance, policy analysis, program evaluations, etc.). Such service is serious, demanding work, requiring the rigor – and the accountability – traditionally associated with research activities. Scholarly service that both applies and contributes to human knowledge is needed in a society whose complex problems require thoughtful informed solutions. Scholarship has to prove its worth not on its own terms but by service to the nation and the world. New intellectual understanding can develop ‘through medical diagnoses, serving clients in psychotherapy, shaping public policy, creating an architectural design, or working with the public schools.’ An example of the Scholarship of Application, for example, might be serving as a consultant to a public school district on the development of a comprehensive P-12 curriculum within one’s discipline expertise. As with any area of scholarship, the faculty member is expected to provide some type of product which tells the story – some type of evidence which makes the case.
4. “The Scholarship of Teaching – The scholarship of teaching is based on the assumption that the academic endeavors of a professor become meaningful only as they are understood by others. Great teachers possess a deep knowledge base and the skill to create an engaged learning community in which the experience augments every participants’ understanding. When defined as scholarship, teaching both educates and entices future scholars. As a scholarly enterprise, teaching begins with what the teacher knows. Those who teach must, above all, be well informed, steeped in the knowledge of their fields and lifelong learners themselves. Teaching can be well-regarded only as professors are widely read and intellectually engaged. Pedagogical procedures must be carefully planned, continuously examined and related directly to the subject taught. Great teachers stimulate active, not passive, learning and encourage students to be critical, creative thinkers, with the capacity to go on learning after their college days are over. Further, good teaching means that faculty, as scholars, are also learners. Teaching at its best means not only transmitting knowledge, but transforming and extending it as well. Through their own reading, classroom discussions and comments and questions posed by students, professors themselves are pushed in creative new directions. Faculty can document their learning as well as efforts to improve their courses and refine their pedagogy. Evidence to assess the scholarship of teaching should be gathered from at least three sources: self-assessment, peer assessment, and student assessment.”
The College of Education faculty regularly participate in state-wide, regional and/or national professional conferences within their specialty areas, attend the annual Oregon Association of Teacher Education (ORATE) conference, or the Oregon Technology in Education Network fall or spring conferences. The following pattern reveals the activity over the last five years:
2001/02: Out of 21 full-time faculty members, 8 (38%) presented at conferences and another 10 (48%) attended national conferences.
2002/03: Out of 21 full-time faculty members, 6 (29%) presented at conferences and another 14 (67%) attended national conferences.
2003/04: Out of 20 full-time faculty members, 9 (45%) presented at conferences and another 5 (23%) attended national conferences.
2004/05: Out of 20 full-time faculty members, 8 (40%) presented at conferences and another 4 (20%) attended national conferences.
2005/06: Out of 20 full-time faculty members, 9 (45%) presented at conferences and another 7 (35%) attended national conferences.
Faculty members in the College of Education regularly publish in journal articles, chapters and books as well ( Faculty Publications (pdf)). For a more complete overview of faculty publications, presentations and grants, see columns CH – CW in the Faculty Survey (xls).