Doctor of Pharmacy Student Learning Outcomes
Developing and Refining our Student Learning Outcomes
The Pacific University School of Pharmacy (PUSOP) created a list of Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) to provide guidance to faculty, staff, administration, preceptors, and students on elements of knowledge and skills attained by Doctor of Pharmacy graduates. Our SLO were approved by Curriculum Committee (CC), and the School of Pharmacy Assessment Committee (SOPAC). As PUSOP’s adopted SLO are a mix of faculty-derived SLO, the Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education CAPE outomes, and modified-CAPE outcomes, each SLO is listed with a tag. The CAPE or modified CAPE outcomes are indicated with an asterisk (*), and the rest are derived from faculty written SLO. All SLO have been linked via the tag to their corresponding NAPLEX blueprint. If the SLO is taken exactly from CAPE, the tag will state “CAPE”. If the SLO is a minor modification from a CAPE SLO, the tag will read “Modified-CAPE”.
1. CAPE: Domain 1 – Foundational Knowledge (NAPLEX/NABP 1.1.0, 1.4.0)
- Develop and use strategies to apply foundational sciences (pharmaceutical, social and administrative, and clinical) to solve therapeutic problems (1.1 Learner)
- Critically analyze scientific literature to enhance clinical decision making (1.1 Learner)
- Demonstrate knowledge and skills related to the laws governing pharmacy practice (1.1 Learner)
2. CAPE: Domain 2 – Essentials for Practice and Care (NAPLEX/NABP 1.2.0; 2.1.0-2.3.0)
- (*) Provide patient-centered care as the medication expert (collect and interpret evidence, prioritize, formulate assessments and recommendations, implement, monitor and adjust plans, and document activities) (CAPE: 2.1 Caregiver)
- (*) Manage patient healthcare needs using human, financial, technological, and physical resources to optimize operational safety and efficacy (Modified-CAPE: 2.2 Manager)
- (*) Design prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to manage chronic disease and improve health and wellness (CAPE: 2.3 Promoter)
- (*) Describe how population-based care influences patient centered care and influences the development of practice guidelines and evidence-based best practices (CAPE: 2.4 Provider)
- Prepare medications utilizing appropriate procedures and accurate calculations (2.1 Caregiver)
3. CAPE: Domain 3 - Approach to Practice and Care (NAPLEX/NABP 1.2.0-1.5.0)
- (*) Identify problems; explore and prioritize potential strategies; and design, implement, and evaluate a viable solution (CAPE: 3.1 Problem Solver)
- Utilize a caring, empathetic, and professional manner to effectively communicate with all health care professionals, patients, families and caregivers and assess their understanding (3.2 Educator / 3.6 Communicator)
- Demonstrate and practice skills in leading change and promoting advocacy for the profession, patients and self (3.3 Advocate / 4.2 Leader / 4.3 Innovator)
- (*) Actively participate and engage as a healthcare team member by demonstrating mutual respect, understanding, and values to meet patient care needs (CAPE: 3.4 Collaborator)
- Demonstrate skills necessary to manage personnel, interpersonal relationships, and workflow within pharmacy practice (3.4 Collaborator)
- (*) Recognize social determinants of health to diminish disparities and inequities in access to quality care (CAPE: 3.5 Includer)
4. CAPE: Domain 4 – Personal and Professional Development (NAPLEX/NABP1.5.0)
- (*) Assess personal knowledge, skills, abilities, beliefs, biases, motivation, and emotions that could enhance or limit personal and professional growth (Modified-CAPE: 4.1: Self-Awareness)
- (*) Demonstrate responsibility for creating and achieving shared goals, regardless of position (CAPE: 4.2: Leadership)
- (*) Engage in innovative activities by using creative thinking to envision better ways of accomplishing professional goals (CAPE: 4.3: Innovation)
- (*) Exhibit behaviors and values that are consistent with the trust given to the profession by patients, other healthcare providers, and society (CAPE:4.4: Professionalism)
- Actively seek engagement in the profession through service (4.4 Professionalism)
- Develop the skills, attitudes, and values necessary for self-directed, lifelong learning (4.4 Professional)
Plans for Assessment of the achievement of Student Learning Outcomes
The SLO developed can be assessed at the end of the didactic and experiential education. This will place many of the assessment measures in the APPE evaluation and in the overall reflections and self-assessments made by the students. Some of these CAPE 2013 elements already exist in our current experiential evaluation tool, but the Northwest Consortium is currently in the process of revising these to meet CAPE 2013. At this point, faculty will be focusing on outcomes as they construct the learning objectives for each course, currently reflected in the course syllabus. Some tagging of specific items may be possible during the course assessments. This process will be useful in assessing students’ progress on achieving the SLO, and not necessarily their full achievement of these outcomes.
The assessment of faculty members’ use of and students’ progress to achieve the SLO use will occur through 1) measurement of the effectiveness of faculty development sessions and activities related to SLO over the next year, 2) syllabus construction (faculty member identification and inclusion of relevant SLO in their courses), and 3) faculty use of current assessment methods to track students’ learning as part of activities, exams, assignments, etc. The Assessment Committee, in collaboration with the Assistant Dean for Academics and Assessment (ADAA), will collect the following data and prepare a report to the Dean and faculty on the accomplishment of these goals.
- Faculty development: Faculty development sessions between the ADAA and SOPAC-CC will be useful to help faculty effectively use SLO.
- Syllabus - SLO: Faculty members will include relevant SLO in the syllabus under course goals. The ADAA will review syllabi submitted to CC and track faculty members’ use of SLO. Periodic updates will be provided to faculty.
- Faculty use of SLO: Faculty will explore different mechanisms to connect SLO to class activities, lectures, exam items, projects and assignments, etc. A list of these methods will be shared with faculty throughout the year to help faculty develop new strategies to use SLO.
Dissemination Process for New SLO and Communication Assessment Plans
SLO Development | PUSOP SLO were developed based on CC and SOPAC work during the 2014-2015 academic year. SLO were finalized and approved during the Summer/Fall All-Staff/Faculty Retreat 2015 with CC to review and revise them to reduce duplication and decrease the number of SLO to a manageable number.
SLO Revision Approval | SOPAC and CC reviewed the revised SLO during the December SOPAC meeting and approved them. These were also tagged to the new NAPLEX blueprint by the ADAA.
Communicating SLO | We plan to share these revised and approved SLO with faculty and staff first, then share with students via Program Updates and through our syllabi. We should also share once again with advisory board members and preceptors.